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原文:①A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. ②Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture. ③Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. ④The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. ⑤As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. ⑥A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

译文:①比较过去150年间的英国地质学出版物,不仅发现研究的重要性越来越受到重视,而且发现了研究性论文的出版标准定义也在发生变化。②因此,在19世纪,局部的地质学研究本身就代表了一种有价值的科研;但是在20世纪,局部的研究只有在包含或考虑到更广阔的地质情况时,才越来越被专业人员接受。③另一方面业余人员继续以旧的方式从事局部的研究。④总体结果是,业余人员更难在专业地质刊物上发表论文,这种结果因为审阅制度的广泛引入得以巩固,开始是经由19世纪国家 级杂志,后来是经由20世纪几家地方地质杂志。⑤这样发展的必然结果是出现了针对专业读者和业余读者的不同杂志。⑥类似的分化过程也导致专业地质学家聚集起来,形成一两个全国性的团体,而业余地质学家则要么留在地方性团体中,要么以不同方式组成全国性的团体。

逐句讲解:

第一句:A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper. 比较过去150年间的英国地质学出版物,不仅发现研究的重要性越来越受到重视,而且发现了研究性论文的出版标准定义也在发生变化。(苗苗老师原创译文)

全句主干:A comparison of A... reveals not simply B, but also C :比较A,不仅发现了B,而且发现了C (reveal揭示;发现;not simply=not only 不仅)

1. A= British geological publications over the last century and a half:过去150年间的英国地质学出版物

1)publication出版(不可数名词);出版物,刊物(可数名词)——publish出版(动词)——publisher出版商;出版社

2)over=during在..期间;over the last century and a half在过去的一个半世纪之间;在过去150年间

2. B=an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research越来越强调研究的重要性=研究的重要性越来越受到重视

1)increasing越来越多的;日益的

2)emphasis on sth对某事的强调=强调某事;(注意两点:①介词搭配;②区分词性emphasis n.——emphasize v.)

3)primacy n.首要;首位——prime a. 最重要的,首要的;上等的;n. 盛年

3. C=a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper研究性论文的出版标准定义不断发生变化

1)a changing definition of sth:某事不断变化的定义;某事的定义不断发生变化

2)sth=what constitutes an acceptable research paper :什么构成了一篇可被接受的研究性论文=什么构成了一篇可被出版的研究性论文=研究性论文的出版标准(constitute构成;acceptable可被接受的,结合语境可以翻译为可被出版的;research paper研究性论文;科研论文;学术论文)

第二句:Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right; but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture.

1. Thus, in the nineteenth century, local geological studies represented worthwhile research in their own right 因此,在19世纪,局部的地质学研究本身就代表了一种有价值的科研

1)local 局部的;当地的;;local study局部的研究

2)represent代表v.

3)worthwhile值得的,有价值的

4)in one’s own right凭借自身;靠自己

2. but, in the twentieth century, local studies have increasingly become acceptable to professionals only if they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture但是在20世纪,局部的研究只有在包含或考虑到更广阔的地质情况时,才越来越被专业人员所接受

1)sth have increasingly become acceptable to sb 某事越来越被某人所接受 (sth=local studies局部研究;sb=professionals专业人员)

2)only if...只有...

3)they incorporate, and reflect on, the wider geological picture

they指代前面的local studies

incorporate v. 包含;并入

reflect on sth考虑;反思(注意区分:reflect sth反应)

geological picture地质情况

第三句:Amateurs, on the other hand, have continued to pursue local studies in the old way. 另一方面业余人员继续以旧的方式从事局部的研究。

1. amateurs业余爱好者;业余人员

2. pursue追求;继续进行;从事——pursuit n.

3. in the old way以旧的方式

第四句:The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century.

1. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs总体结果是,业余人员更难在专业的地质刊物上发表论文

1)make sth harder fo sb:对于某人来说某事更难(sth=entrance to professional geological journals进入专业的地质期刊=在专业的地质刊物上发表论文;sb=amateurs业余人员)

2)overall全部的

2. a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing这种结果因为审阅制度的广泛引入得以巩固

1)reinforce加强;巩固

2)referee n.(刊登前鉴定文章的)审阅人;——v.审阅

3)introduction-introduce引入,引出;介绍

3. first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century. 开始是经由19世纪国家 级杂志,后来是经由20世纪几家地方地质杂志。

第五句:As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership. 这样发展的必然结果是出现了针对专业读者和业余读者的不同杂志。

1. As a logical consequence of this development作为这种发展的必然结果(logical consequence有逻辑的结果=必然结果)

2. separate journals have now appeared现在已经出现了不同的杂志

3. aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership要么主要针对专业读者,要么主要针对业余读者(后置定语,修饰前面的journals;readership读者数;读者群)

第六句:A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.

1. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies类似的分化过程也导致专业地质学家聚集在一两个全国性的专业团体中

1)sth has led to sb doing 某事导致某人做...

2)sth=A rather similar process of differentiation 类似的分化过程

3)led的原形:lead (lead to导致)

4)sb = professional geologists专业的地质学家

5)doing=coming together nationally within one or two specific societies聚集在一两个全国性的专业团体中(specific societies专业团体)

2. whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.而业余地质学家往往要么留在地方性团体中,要么以不同方式聚集在全国性的团体。

1)whereas而,然而:表对比

2)tend to do sth往往做某事

3)either...or或者...或者...

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