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  Section I  Use of English

  Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C, and D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  By 1830 the former Spanish and Portuguese colonies had become independent nations. The roughly 20 million __1__ of these nations loved __2__ to the future. Born in the crisis of the old regime and Iberian Colonialism, many of the leaders of independence __3__ the ideals of representative government, careers __4__ to talent, freedom of commerce and trade, the __5__ to private property, and a belief in the individual as the basis of society. __6__ there was a belief that the new nations should be sovereign and independent states, large enough to be economically viable and integrated by a __7__ set of laws.

  On the issue of __8__ of religion and the position of the church, __9__, there was less agreement __10__ the leadership Roman Catholicism had been the state religion and the only one __11__ by the Spanish crown, __12__ most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism __13__ the official religion of the new states, some sought to end the __14__ of other faiths. The defense of the Church became a rallying __15__ for the conservative forces.

  The ideals of the early leaders of independence were often egalitarian, valuing equality of everything. Bolivar had received aid from Haiti and had __16__ in return to abolish slavery in the areas he liberated. By 1854 slavery had been abolished everywhere except Spain’s __17__ colonies. Early premise to end Indian tribute and taxes on people of mixed origin came much __18__ because the new nations still needed the revenue such policies __19__ Egalitarian sentiments were often tempered by fears that the mass of the population was __20__ self-rule and democracy.

  1.[A] natives   inhabitants   [C] peoples   [D] individuals

  2.[A] confusedly   cheerfully   [C] worriedly   [D] hopefully

  3.[A] shared   forgot   [C] attained   [D] rejected

  4.[A] related   close   [C] open   [D] devoted

  5.[A] access   succession   [C] right   [D] return

  6.[A] Presumable   Incidentally   [C] Obviously   [D] Generally

  7.[A] unique   common   [C] particular   [D] typical

  8.[A] freedom   origin   [C] impact   [D] reform

  9.[A] therefore   however   [C] indeed   [D] moreover

  10.[A] with   about   [C] among   [D] by

  11.[A] allowed   preached   [C] granted   [D] funded

  12.[A] Since   If   [C] Unless   [D] While

  13.[A] as   for   [C] under   [D] against

  14.[A] spread   interference   [C] exclusion   [D] influence

  15.[A] support   cry   [C] plea   [D] wish

  16.[A] urged   intended   [C] expected   [D] promised

  17.[A] controlling   former   [C] remaining   [D] original

  18.[A] slower   faster   [C] easier   [D] tougher

  19.[A] created     produced   [C] contributed   [D] preferred

  20.[A] puzzled by     hostile to    [C] pessimistic about   [D] unprepared for

  Section Ⅱ  Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Test 1

  If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006’s World Cup tournament, you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk: elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months. If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks, you would find this strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced.

  What might account for this strange phenomenon? Here are a few guesses: a) certain astrological signs confer superior soccer skills; b) winter-born babies tend to have higher oxygen capacity, which increases soccer stamina; c) soccer-mad parents are more likely to conceive children in springtime, at the annual peak of soccer mania; d) none of the above.

  Anders Ericsson, a 58-year-old psychology professor at Florida State University, says he believes strongly in “none of the above.” Ericsson grew up in Sweden, and studied nuclear engineering until he realized he would have more opportunity to conduct his own research if he switched to psychology. His first experiment, nearly 30 years ago, involved memory: training a person to hear and then repeat a random series of numbers. “With the first subject, after about 20 hours of training, his digit span had risen from 7 to 20,” Ericsson recalls. “He kept improving, and after about 200 hours of training he had risen to over 80 numbers.”

  This success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined, led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one. In other words, whatever inborn differences two people may exhibit in their abilities to memorize, those differences are swamped by how well each person “encodes” the information. And the best way to learn how to encode information meaningfully, Ericsson determined, was a process known as deliberate practice. Deliberate practice entails more than simply repeating a task. Rather, it involves setting specific goals, obtaining immediate feedback and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome.

  Ericsson and his colleagues have thus taken to studying expert performers in a wide range of pursuits, including soccer. They gather all the data they can, not just performance statistics and biographical details but also the results of their own laboratory experiments with high achievers. Their work makes a rather startling assertion: the trait we commonly call talent is highly overrated. Or, put another way, expert performers—whether in memory or surgery, ballet or computer programming—are nearly always made, not born.

  21. The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to

  [A] stress the importance of professional training.

  [B]spotlight the soccer superstars in the World Cup.

  [C] introduce the topic of what makes expert performance.

  [D] explain why some soccer teams play better than others.

  22. The word “mania” (Line 4, Paragraph 2) most probably means

  [A] fun.

  [B]craze.

  [C] hysteria.

  [D] excitement.

  23. According to Ericsson, good memory

  [A] depends on meaningful processing of information.

  [B]results from intuitive rather than cognitive exercises.

  [C] is determined by genetic rather than psychological factors.

  [D] requires immediate feedback and a high degree of concentration.

  24. Ericsson and his colleagues believe that

  [A] talent is a dominating factor for professional success.

  [B]biographical data provide the key to excellent performance.

  [C] the role of talent tends to be overlooked.

  [D] high achievers owe their success mostly to nurture.

  25. Which of the following proverbs is closest to the message the text tries to convey?

  [A]  “Faith will move mountains.”

  [B]“One reaps what one sows.”

  [C]  “Practice makes perfect.”

  [D]  “I like father like son.”