There is a marked difference between the education which everyone gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young.

Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected and considered of no account in his society?

His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a manner as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.

I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.

But his primary task is not to think about the moral code which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.

5)They argue that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature than are cotton fibers that have been separated from cotton seeds.”


This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past.

Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.


1. Scattered around the globe are more than 100 small regions of isolated volcanic activity known to geologists as hot spots.


2. Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.


3. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay.


4. Only recently did linguists begin the serious study of languages that were very different from their own.



1. On the other hand, he did not accept as well founded the charge made by some of his critics that, while he was a good observer, he had no power of reasoning.


2. I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in a Socratic way about moral problems.


1. It is painful to read these round about accounts today.


2. It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience ,but this effect is not a part of its original motive.)


3. It is interesting to note that in countries where the national diet contains large quantities of unrefined flour and vegetables, certain diseases are comparatively rare.


4. I believe equally that it is in the interests of the world as a whole that Europe should increasingly unite and speak with a common voice.


5. If we are ever going to protect the atmosphere, it is crucial that those new plants be environmentally sound.


6. It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history.


7. It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive.



1. If he were here this evening, we would play cards.


2. If I had known her address, I would have visited her last week.


3. Were she a boy, she would be happy.


4. Had you informed me earlier, I wouldn’t have signed the contract.


5. Coke town was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if the smoke and the ashes had allowed it.


6. They do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been, had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.


7 .If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. (2011)


8. Those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times.


9. This “brain drain” has long bothered policymakers in poor countries. They fear that it hurts their economies, depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities, worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make.



1. Mary coming back, they discussed it together. (= When Mary came back…)


2. Health and persistence given, one can do great things. (=If health and persistence are given…)


3. But the epidemic is moderate in severity, according to Margaret Chan, the organization's director general, with the overwhelming majority of patients experiencing only mild symptoms and a full recovery.


4. The moon having risen, they took a walk in the fields. (= When the moon had risen…)


5. So much time having been spent, the work is only half done. (=Though so much time has been spent…)



1. It is intellectuals, not America, who have become anti-intellectual.


2. Although cultural relativism had been introduced more than a century before, it was Boas who made it acentral premise for anthropological research.